Diagnostic Driving
Driver Safety Starts Here
DD-Research.jpg

Our Research

We are backed by over 2 decades of research.

Diagnostic Driving is comprised of scientists from Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) and University of Pennsylvania who are dedicated to creating innovative tools that increase road safety. Our team has rigorously studied the software program Ready-Assess™ and validated its reliability in identifying dangerous driving behaviors.


True to life – Ready Assess simulates the most common and serious crash scenarios as determined by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.


  • McDonald, C.C., Curry, A.E., Kandadai, V., Sommers, M.S., & Winston, F.K. (2014) Comparison of teen and adult driver crash scenarios in a nationally representative sample of serious crashes. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 72, 302–308. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2014.07.016

  • Durbin, D.R., Mirmana, J.H., Curry A.E., Wanga, W., Fisher Thiel, M.C., Schultheis, M., & Winston, F.K. (2014). Driving errors of learner teens: Frequency, nature and their association with practice. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 72, 433-439. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2014.07.033

  • Curry, A.E., Hafetz, J., Kallan, M.J., Winston, F.K., & Durbin, D.R. (2011). Prevalence of teen driver errors leading to serious motor vehicle crashes. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 43(4), 1285-1290. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2010.10.019

  • McDonald, C., Tanenbaum, J., Lee, Y.C., Fisher, D., Mayhew, D., & Winston, F. (2012). Using Crash Data to Develop Simulator Scenarios for Assessing Novice Driver Performance. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2321, 73-78. https://doi.org/10.3141/2321-10


Proactively identifies risky drivers — Ready Assess can differentiate drivers who are skilled vs. unskilled and experienced vs. inexperienced.


  • McDonald, C.C., Kandadai, V., Loeb, H., Seacrist, T.S., Lee, Y.C., Winston, Z., & Winston, F.K. (2015). Simulated Driving Assessment (SDA) for teen drivers: results from a validation study. Injury Prevention, 21(3), 145-152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2014-041480

  • McDonald, C.C., Kandadai, V., Loeb, H., Seacrist, T., Lee, Y.C., Bonfiglio, D., Fisher, D.L., & Winston, F.K. (2015). Evaluation of a Risk Awareness Perception Training Program on Novice Teen Driver Behavior at Left-Turn Intersections. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2516, 15-21. https://doi.org/10.3141/2516-03

  • Loeb, H.S., Kandadai, V., McDonald, C.C., & Winston, F.K. (2015). Emergency Braking in Adults Versus Novice Teen Drivers Response to Simulated Sudden Driving Events. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2516, 8-14. https://doi.org/10.3141/2516-02

  • Durbin, D.R., Mirman, J.H., Curry A.E., Wanga, W., Fisher Thiel, M.C., Schultheis, M., & Winston, F.K. (2014). Driving errors of learner teens: Frequency, nature and their association with practice. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 72, 433-439. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2014.07.033

  • Winston, F., McDonald, C., Kandadai, V., Winston, Z., & Seacrist, T. (2014). Experience and Skill Predict Failure to Brake Errors: Further Validation of the Simulated Driving Assessment. SAE Technical Paper, 2014-01-0445. https://doi.org/10.4271/2014-01-0445

  • Ontañón S., Lee, Y.C., Snodgrass, S., Bonfiglio, D., Winston, F.K., McDonald, C., & Gonzalez, A.J. (2014). Case-Based Prediction of Teen Driver Behavior and Skill. In: Lamontagne L., Plaza E. (eds) Case-Based Reasoning Research and Development. ICCBR 2014. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 8765. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-11209-1_27

  • Winston, F.K., McDonald, C.C., Kandadai, V., Loeb, H., Tanenbaum, J.B., Seacrist, T., Scarfone, S.R., & Winston, Z. (2014). Headway Time Errors, Safe Driving Skill, and Experience: An Initial Validation of the Simulated Driving Assessment. Presented at the Transportation Research Board 93rd Annual Meeting. Washington DC: Transportation Research Board. Retrieved from, https://trid.trb.org/view.aspx?id=1289640

  • McDonald, C.C., Seacrist, T.S., Lee, Y.C., Loeb, H., Kandadai, V., & Winston, F.K. Headway Time and Crashes Among Novice Teens and Experienced Adult Drivers in a Simulated Lead Truck Braking Scenario. (2013). Proceedings presented at the 7th International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training and Vehicle Design (439-445). Bolton Landing, New York: University of Iowa. Retrieved from: http://drivingassessment.uiowa.edu/sites/default/files/DA2013/Papers/067_McDonald_0.pdf


Accurate results – Results are corroborated by motor vehicle crash record reviews and ratings conducted by independent driving evaluators certified to administer a state driver’s licensing road test.


  • McDonald, C.C., Kandadai, V., Loeb, H., Seacrist, T.S., Lee, Y.C., Winston, Z., & Winston, F.K. (2015). Simulated Driving Assessment (SDA) for teen drivers: results from a validation study. Injury Prevention, 21(3), 145-152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2014-041480

  • McDonald, C.C., Kandadai, V., Loeb, H., Seacrist, T., Lee, Y.C., Bonfiglio, D., Fisher, D.L., & Winston, F.K. (2015). Evaluation of a Risk Awareness Perception Training Program on Novice Teen Driver Behavior at Left-Turn Intersections. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2516, 15-21. https://doi.org/10.3141/2516-03

  • McDonald, C.C., Curry, A.E., Kandadai, V., Sommers, M.S., & Winston, F.K. (2014) Comparison of teen and adult driver crash scenarios in a nationally representative sample of serious crashes. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 72, 302–308. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2014.07.016


State of the Science


  • Kandadai, V., Loeb, H., Jean-Gilles, G., McDonald, C., Winston, A., Seacrist, T., Winston, F. (2015).  LiveMetrics: Providing individualized feedback on driving performance. SAE Technical Paper, 2015-01-1390.  https://doi.org/10.4271/2015-01-1390

  • Caplow-Munro, D., Loeb, H., Kandadai, V., & Winston, F. (2015) Open Source Computer Vision Solution for Head and Gaze Tracking in a Driving Simulator Environment. SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars - Mech. Syst., 8(2) :573-583. https://doi.org/10.4271/2015-01-1386

  • Loeb, H., Seacrist, T., McDonald, C., & Winston, F. (2014). Simulated Driving Assessment: Case Study for the Development of Drivelab, Extendable Matlab™ Toolbox for Data Reduction of Clinical Driving Simulator Data. SAE Technical Paper, 2014-01-0452. https://doi.org/10.4271/2014-01-0452

  • Romer, D., Lee, Y.C., McDonald, C.C., Winston, F.K. (2014). Adolescence, Attention Allocation, and Driving Safety. Journal of Adolescent Health, 54(5), S6-S15.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.10.202